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What is catalytic combustion?

July 28,2023

Catalytic combustion is a purification device that converts heat into thermal energy by oxidizing a mixture of fuel and air through chemical reactions. It utilizes a catalyst to rapidly oxidize hydrocarbons in the exhaust gas at lower temperatures and achieve a higher reaction rate at lower concentrations, while also releasing a large amount of heat.

The catalytic combustion device consists of three parts: a heating chamber, a heat storage chamber, and a catalytic reactor:

1. Heating chamber: used for preheating and maintaining a certain temperature;

2. Heat storage chamber: used to store heat;

3. Catalytic reactor: used to generate high-temperature, high concentration gas and utilize high-temperature gas to decompose organic substances to obtain energy. Generally, precious metals such as platinum alloys are used as catalysts (precious metals), and molecular sieves are also used as catalysts.

The working principle of catalytic combustion equipment is that when organic waste gas passes through the adsorption unit, due to the large specific surface area and porosity of the adsorbent surface, it can adsorb more organic gases and increase their concentration; The purpose of preheating the gas after entering the heating unit and undergoing heating treatment is to increase the temperature of the gas to improve the rate and efficiency of the oxidation reaction; When the organic waste gas is heated to a certain temperature and sent into the catalytic bed, the Redox starts to generate harmless water vapor and is discharged out of the room (if energy recovery is required, it can be recovered by condensation).

Multiple heat storage chambers or heating units can be set according to different needs to increase the stability and safety of the system.

The common types in the current market are:

(1) Single phase:

This structure is relatively simple, easy to manufacture and maintain, and inexpensive, but its disadvantage is that it has high resistance and cannot provide enough heat energy to ensure the required oxygen content to meet the requirements of complete combustion (usually requiring over 95%).

(2) Biphasic:

The advantage of this structure is that it can provide sufficient oxygen content and ensure complete combustion requirements, with low resistance and lower price. However, due to its complex structure, it is costly and difficult to manufacture and maintain. (Usually, the required oxygen content is around 70%.) Additionally, due to the slow airflow speed, there is a greater demand for fan power.

(3) Three phase:

This structure is currently one of the more advanced structures and process technologies. It not only meets the needs of complete combustion but also greatly reduces energy consumption. It not only maintains high operating efficiency of the system, but also effectively reduces energy consumption to achieve the goal of saving. The characteristic of the three-phase type is its small size, high efficiency, energy-saving effect, long service life, safety, and reliability The usual amount of oxygen required is around 90%

(4) Honeycomb shaped:

The honeycomb shaped catalyst carrier has a large specific surface area, which can effectively absorb oxygen in the air and separate it from other harmful components, so that the harmful components can be purified and discharged, and the entire system is clean. The honeycomb shaped carrier also has good breathability, which will not cause blockage, making the entire system can be used stably for a long time.

(5) Ceramic type:

This is a new type of environmentally friendly material that not only has the characteristics of high strength and wear resistance of metals, but also has the advantages of low density and light weight of plastics. It also has the characteristics of high temperature and corrosion resistance unique to ceramics, so it is one of the ideal materials to replace metals! In addition, due to the unique physical properties of ceramics themselves, they have become ideal high-temperature resistant materials with a wide range of applications!

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