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Ungayikhetha kanjani isikhwama sokuhlunga sothuli?

Isikhathi: 2018-01-29

Isikhwama sokuhlunga uthuli singabizwa ngokuthi yinhliziyo yomqoqi wothuli, ukukhetha isikhwama sokuhlunga kubalulekile, kuthinta ngqo umphumela wokususa uthuli, indwangu yokuhlunga uthuli kanye nomklamo kufanele kulandele ukufutheka okusebenzayo, kube lula ukuqaqa uthuli kanye nomphumela oqinile. Ukukhethwa kwezikhwama zokuhlunga kufanele kukhethwe kulezi zinto ezilandelayo: izinga lokushisa legesi, umswakama kanye namakhemikhali; usayizi wezinhlayiyana; okuhlushwa uthuli; isivinini somoya wokuhlunga; izindlela zokuhlanza nezinye izinto ezibhekwayo.

1

Umgomo wokukhetha isikhwama

Nezinyathelo zokuphepha

isikhwama sokuhlunga ngokuvamile sisuselwa kunhlobo yamagesi aminyene nothuli, uhlobo luthuli nezindlela zokuhlanza uthuli lwezinketho ezahlukile zokuhlunga, ukukhetha kufanele kulandele imigomo elandelayo:

ukusebenza kwesikhwama sokuhlunga kufanele kuhambisane nemibandela ejwayelekile yokukhiqiza nenqubo yokususa uthuli nezidingo ezikhethekile.

Esimweni esingenhla, isikhwama sokuhlunga kufanele sibe isikhathi eside ngangokunokwenzeka ukukhetha impilo ende, yingoba impilo yenkonzo ende ayigcini nje ngokugcina izindleko zokusebenza, kodwa futhi nokuhlangabezana nezidingo zokukhishwa kwegesi okude.

Ukukhetha isikhwama sokuhlunga kufanele kube ukuqhathanisa okubanzi kwezinhlobo ezahlukahlukene akufanele kusetshenziswe esikhwameni sokuhlunga okuthiwa "esihle" ukuvumelanisa nezimo ezahlukahlukene zomsebenzi.

Ngokwesimo segesi, uthuli nezindlela zokuhlanza, kufanele kubambe izinto ezisemqoka ukukhetha isikhwama sokuhlunga, njengegesi yokushisa ephezulu, amagesi awonakalayo, uthuli olunamandla nokunye.

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Ngokusho kwegesi enothuli

Ukuzikhethela kwemvelo

lokushisa igesi. Ukushisa kwegesi yokugcwala yinto ebalulekile ekukhetheni isikhwama. Imvamisa kungaphansi kwe-130 igesi yothuli ebizwa ngokuthi igesi yegumbi lokushisa, igesi yothuli inkulu kune-130 okubizwa ngokuthi igesi yokushisa ephezulu, ngakho-ke izikhwama zokuhlunga zingahlukaniswa izigaba ezimbili: isikhwama sokuhlunga esijwayelekile sokushisa nesikhwama sokushisa sokushisa esiphezulu. Ngakho-ke, isikhwama sokuhlunga esifanele kufanele sikhethwe ngokuya ngokushisa kwegesi ye-flue. Abanye abantu babiza i-130-170 lokushisa, kepha isikhwama sokuhlunga kanye nohlobo lokushisa oluphezulu.

Ukushisa kwesikhwama kune "lokushisa okuqhubekayo kokusetshenziswa kwesikhathi eside" "lokushisa kwesikhashana esifushane" okubili. "Ukushisa okuqhubekayo kokusebenzisa isikhathi eside" kusho isikhwama sokuhlunga singasebenza ekusebenzeni okuqhubekayo kwezinga lokushisa elide, izinga lokushisa kufanele lisetshenziselwe ukuhlunga isikhwama. "Ukushisa kwesikhashana esiseduze" kubhekelwa ekushiseni okuphezulu kwansuku zonke kwesikhwama sokuhlunga akuvunyelwe ngaphezu kwe-10min, isikhathi eside kakhulu, isikhwama sizothambisa ukuthamba.

umswakama wegesi. Irhasi yothuli ihlukaniswe izifunda ezintathu ngokusho komswakama okuhlobene: lapho umswakama ongaphansi ungaphansi kuka-30%, uyigesi eyomile, okulula ukukhipha ugesi osendaweni. Njengegesi ephezulu yomswakama, uthuli kulula ukunamathisela futhi kunzima ukuluhlanza. Umswakama ohlobene no-30% kuya ku-80% wombuso ojwayelekile, isimo esingcono kakhulu sokusebenza komkhuzi. Lapho umswakama ohlobene negesi ungaphezulu kwama-80%, kuba negesi ephezulu yomswakama. Lapho igesi ephezulu yomswakama isesimweni sokushisa esiphakeme, ikakhulukazi igesi eliqukethe i-SO3 kaphethiloli oqukethe uthuli lizodonsa umoya. Lokhu kuzokwenza ukuthi umthwalo wesikhwama ungahambi kahle, uvale, kepha futhi ugcwale izinto zokwakha, idivaysi yokususa uthuli, isikhwama sokuhlunga, njll. Kubangele ukulimala okukhulu, kubalulekile ukunaka ngokukhethekile lapho ukhetha isikhwama segesi emanzi kufanele unake amaphuzu alandelayo:

1) Umoya womswakama ubangela ukuthi uthuli lubhajwe phezu kwesikhwama sokuhlunga lube manzi-manzi, ikakhulukazi ukuze kuthathe amanzi, ukudonsa okushubile nokumanzisa udoti okubangela ukugcwala. Lokhu kufanele kusetshenziswe njenge-nylon kanye nengilazi ye-fiber surface bushelelezi, i-fiber ende, kulula ukuyihlanza isikhwama sokuhlunga, nesikhwama kufanele sisetshenziswe i-silicone oil, i-fluorocarbon resin invadinghlasela, noma ngaphezulu kwesikhwama kusetshenziswa i-acrylic, polytetrafluoroethylene Substance efana nokuhlanganisa . Ibhodi ebunjiwe neyefilimu inokukwazi ukumelana kahle nomswakama futhi kulula ukuyihlanza. Kepha njengokukhethwa kokuqala kwegesi ephezulu yomswakama kufanele kube yisikhwama sothuli samafutha esingavunyelwe ngamanzi.

 

 

2) Lapho izinga lokushisa eliphakeme kanye nomswakama ophezulu kuzothinta ukumelana nokushisa kwesikhwama sokuhlunga, ikakhulukazi ukotini, i-polyester, imide nokunye ukuqina kwe-hydrolytic kokuthile kungaphezu kwalokho, kufanele kugwenywe ngangokunokwenzeka.

3) Kungcono ukwamukela isikhwama sokuhlunga esiyindilinga sokuklama isikhwama sokuhlunga ngomswakama oqukethwe kugesi emanzi. Zama ukungasebenzisi isikhwama sokuhlunga esisicaba kanye nesikhwama sokuhlunga sedayimane (ngaphandle kwebhodi elivuthayo leplastiki) elinamajamo nezimo eziyinkimbinkimbi.

4) Izinga lokushisa lokuqongelela uthuli kufanele libe ngaphezulu kokushisa kwamazolo wegesi ngaphezu kwama-30 , ukuze uvikele ukunamathisela isikhwama.

5) Amakhemikhali wegesi. Kumagesi ahlukahlukene we-kiln eqeda imfucumfucu kanye nemfucumfucu yamakhemikhali, imvamisa iqukethe i-acid, i-alkali, i-oxidants, i-organic sol solation nokunye ukwakheka kwamakhemikhali, futhi kaningi ngokushisa, umswakama nezinye izici kuthinta isiphambano. Lokhu kukhethwa kwesikhwama sokuhlunga uthuli kufanele kubhekwe kahle, ukuze kugwemeke ukulahleka okungadingekile.

I-Polyester fiber inokumelana okuhle okushisa nokumelana kwamakhemikhali emazingeni okushisa ajwayelekile, kepha ukumelana kwawo namakhemikhali kubi kakhulu ngaphansi kwezimo zokushisa eziphakeme. I-polyphenylene sulfide fiber inokusebenza okuhle kokumelana okushisa okuphezulu kanye ne-acid kanye ne-alkali corrosion ukumelana, ilungele ukususwa komoya wamalahle wokufakelwa i-flue, kepha umthamo we-antioxidant awunampilo, yize i-polyimide fiber ingenza ukusilela kwayo, kepha ukuqina kwe-hydrolytic akulungile. Njengoba i- "plastiki king" PTFE fiber inamandla okumelana namakhemikhali, kepha intengo iyabiza kakhulu. Ekukhetheni kwabezindaba, kufanele sisekele ekwakhekeni kwamakhemikhali kaphethiloli ogcwele uthuli, sibambe izithako, sibambe izinto ezibalulekile esizocubungula.

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Ngokuya ngokukhethwa kwezindawo zothuli

ukhula nothuli nokunamathela. Ukwehla kogqinsi, ukuthokomala ngokwakhiwa kwezinyathelo eziphakathi kwezintuli ezizogcwalisa, kanye ne-atomic chain yothuli, isimo kanye nokungaboni ngaso linye koketshezi nezinye izinto, kungasetjenziswa ukwenza ibanga le-wetting. Imvamisa engaphansi kwama-degree angama-60 abizwa ngokuthi yi-hydrophilic, angaphezu kwama-90 degrees abizwa ngokuthi yi-hydrophobic. I-hygroscopic uthuli emswakama wayo iyanda, ukubumbana kwezinhlayiya, amandla e-viscous ayanda, ukuhamba, ukushaja kuyancipha, ukunamathela ebusweni besikhwama ngokuhamba kwesikhathi, ukuhlanza ukuhluleka, ifindo lekhekhe lothuli.

Olunye uthuli olunjenge-CaO, CaCl2, KCL, MgCL2, NaCO3 ngemuva kokufakwa komswakama okunye ukuqhubeka kwamakhemikhali, imvelo kanye ne-morphology sekushintshile, okubizwa ngokuthi i-rendquescence. Ngemuva kokukhishwa, uthuli lubambe imbobo yokuhlunga, okuyisikhwama sokuhlunga kunazo zonke.

Okwezinkinga, uthuli, uthuli, imidiya yokuhlunga kufanele ibheke ukukhethwa kwezinto zokuhlunga ezibushelelezi, ezingezona imali kanye nesipho samanzi, ifilimu yepulasitiki emboze isikhwama sepulasitiki njengesihamba phambili.

Ukushaya okunothuli olunamandla okunamathela okuningi, eqinisweni, nesixhumanisi esinamathelayo esingahlukaniseki. Uma ukunamathela kwesikhwama sokuhlunga kuncane kakhulu, kuzolahlekelwa amandla okubamba uthuli, futhi ukunamathela kukhulu kakhulu futhi kudala ukubumbana kothuli, ubunzima bokuhlanza.

Ukuze ukunamathela okuqinile kothuli kumele futhi lusebenzise isikhwama sokuhlunga sendwangu engalukwanga, noma i-sungeinging, ikhalenda, isaliti yokufaka esibukweni yezwa ngesikhwama sokuhlunga, ukumfaka, ukuhloba, ubuchwepheshe bokuphaka kufanele busebenzise ngokugcwele. Ekhuluma kusukela kusikhwama sothuli i-nylon, i-fiberglass ingcono kunezinye izinhlobo.

 

 

 

ukufutheka kothuli nokukhokhiswa. Olunye uthuli lungashisa noma luqhume emoyeni uma izinhlansi zivezwa ekugxilweni okuthile. Inhlanganisela yothuli nosayizi wayo oyizinhlayiyana, ukwakheka, ukugxila, ukushisa kokushisa kanye nezinga lokushiswa nezinye izinto. Uma lincane usayizi wezinhlayiyana, inkulu indawo engaphezulu, kulula ukuyikhanyisa. Isimo esibalulekile sokuqhuma kothuli ukungcebeleka komoya. Kulesi sikhala, umkhawulo ophansi wokuqothula kokuqhuma kwawo ngokuvamile amashumi kuya kumakhulu amagremu ngemitha ye-cubic. Ukuphakama kokushisa komlilo nejubane elishisayo lothuli, kukhulu amandla alo okuqhuma.

Ukuthungwa komlilo noma imithombo yokuqhuma komlilo kuvame ukubangelwa yizinhlansi zamakhemikhali, izinhlansi zikagesi, izinhlayiya ezikhazimulayo, njll., Lapho ukuphela kwento kungonakalisa kakhulu. Lokhu kungenxa yokuthi i-fiber fiber filter yingoba i-fiber fiber yokuhlunga ivame ukushaja kalula, uma uthuli kulula kakhulu ukukhipha izinhlansi ngenkathi ishaja, ngakho-ke nothuli olungashisi futhi olukhokhiswa kalula njengamalahle odonsa, i-coke powder, i-alumina powder ne-magnesium I-Powder, njll., Kufanele ikhethe isihlungi se-flame retardant nesikhwama sothuli se-antistatic.

Ngokuvamile bekukholelwa ukuthi inkomba ye-oksijini engaphezu kwamafreyimu angama-30 exutshwe nemicu evunduzayo, okokusebenza kwesihlungi esendleleni ende noma kuthathwa izinto ezivumayo, ukumelana kungaphansi kwe-1 * 109 ohms. Izicucu ezivame ukusetshenziswa ze-fiber ziyimicu yensimbi engenasici futhi zilungisiwe (namalahle) amakhemikhali amakhemikhali. Uma kuqhathaniswa nalezi zimbili zangaphambili, i-conducction izinzile futhi ithembekile, kuyilapho kulula ukwenqaba ngemuva kwesikhathi esithile. Inani le-fiber yokuziphatha elihlanganisiwe licishe libe ngu-2% ~ 5% wefayibha eyisisekelo.

ukuhamba nothuli nokushayisana. Ukugeleza nothuli nokuqina kungamandla, izogqoka izikhwama ngqo, kunciphise insiza. Ubulukhuni bengaphezulu, izinhlayiya zedayimane ezingahambelani nendawo engaphezulu kwe-abrasive igqoka amahlandla ayikhulu. Izinhlayiya zobumba ezinobukhulu bezinhlayiyana ezingama-10 microns ziba nokugqabha okuphezulu kakhulu, kanti lapho ubukhulu bzinhlayiyana buncishiswa bufika kuma-microns ayi-90 kuye kwayi-5, ukuqina kuthambile. I-Abrasion kanye ne-airflow velocity ka 10 kuya ku 2 isikwele futhi okusanhlamvu kuka 30000 kuhambelana nesikwele, ngakho-ke, isivinini sokugeleza komoya nokufana kwawo kufanele kulawulwe ngokuqinile. Oluthulini olujwayelekile, i-aluminium powder, i-silicon powder, i-coke powder, i-carbon powder, i-oint sintered, njll. Ingezokugcwala okuphezulu. Uthuli olungavali izigqoko kufanele lusetshenziselwe isikhwama sokuhlunga esingavimbi kahle.

Izingcezu zesikhwama sothuli zokugqoka zigqoka izingxenye namafomu ahlukahlukene, ngokokuhlangenwe nakho, ukugqokwa kwesikhwama sokuhlunga engxenyeni engezansi, kungenxa yokuthi isivinini sesikhwama sokuhlunga esingaphezulu sincane, ukuqoqwa kothuli lwegesi kuyinto encane. Ukuze uvikele ingxenye engezansi yesikhwama sokuhlunga egqokwa, umklamo kufanele ukhawule isilinganiso sokuhamba komoya engxenyeni engezansi yesikhwama.

Ngokugqoka okunamandla kothuli, isikhwama sokuhlunga kufanele sinake amaphuzu amathathu:

i-fiber fiber ingcono kunengilazi fiber, i-fiber fiber eyandisiwe ingcono kuneglasi ejwayelekile, ichophile, imfushane, i-curly fiber ingcono kune-coarse ende, i-fiber ebushelelezi.

Izinto ezibonakalayo kufanele zibe yindlela yokuqinisa umzimba ukuqinisa ukuhlangana okukhona phakathi kwemicu, indwangu ye-satin yendwangu efanelekile, indawo yokugcotshwa kwendwangu ingukuthuthukisa izindlela zokumelana nokugqokwa, kepha indwangu ye-satin ne-fleece Bag kuzonyusa inani lokumelana.

Okokuhlanganiswa okujwayelekile kwesihlungi sendawo, amakhalenda nolunye usizo lwangemva kokulashwa nakho kungathuthukisa ukumelana kokugqoka. Izikhwama zokuhlunga ingilazi yefrimu, uwoyela we-silicone, igraffiti, ukwelashwa kwe-resin ye-PTFE kungathuthukisa ukugoqa okungahambeki. Kodwa-ke, isihlungi se-membrane sezimo ezixakile, ifilimu lizogqoka kakhulu ngaphambi kokulahlekelwa yindima yefilimu.

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